Baptism Part 1

In the Old Testament, baptism was used on several occasions. There were also times when people would need to wash their hands, wash their feet, or wash their clothes, but this discussion will focus on baptism of the whole body.

The first reference to baptism is a bit obscure at first, but Paul tells us that it was a symbolic form of baptism.

Exodus 13:21-22 (KJV)

21 And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night: 22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.

Exodus 14:21-22 (KJV)

21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. 22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.

1 Corinthians 10:1-2 (KJV)

1Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;

This was basically the first time that we see baptism used. Notice that it happened after the salvation from Egypt which is the land of bondage. Paul is telling us that the children of Israel that YHWH saved were all baptized. The next baptism occurs when the children of Israel make a covenant with YHWH.

Exodus 19:1-11 (KJV)

1 In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai. For they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel camped before the mount. And Moses went up unto God, and the Lord called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel; Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto myself. Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine: And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel. And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which the Lord commanded him. And all the people answered together, and said, All that the Lord hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the Lord. And the Lord said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever. And Moses told the words of the people unto the Lord. 10 And the Lord said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify them to day and to morrow, and let them wash their clothes, 11 And be ready against the third day: for the third day the Lord will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai.

14 And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes.

Moses sanctified the people and had their clothes washed in response to the covenant that they made with YHWH. This marked a transition period after their salvation from Egypt.


After this event, there were several times throughout the year when a person would be ceremonially baptized. This type of baptism was used to show that a person was transferring from being unclean to clean. Each of the following baptisms took place when a person was fully immersed under water.

In Leviticus 14, we learn about the laws concerning leprosy. When a leper is declared clean, he must follow several instructions, some of which is to wash his clothes, shave his hair, and wash himself with water.

In Leviticus 15 we learn about the laws concerning a running issue or bodily discharges. A man is declared unclean if he has a running issue and everything he touches is unclean. If you were to touch something that he touched, or even touch him, you were to wash your clothes and wash yourself. This would allow you to be clean that night. If at any time there is an emission of semen, the man is to wash his clothes and himself. If a woman comes in contact with the semen, she will do the same. If a woman is on her monthly period, then she is declared unclean for seven days. If you touch her or the things she sits on, you have to wash your clothes and wash yourself.

In Leviticus 16, we read about the instructions concerning the Day of Atonement. On this day, Aaron will wash his body before putting on his priestly clothes. Then when he is finished performing his duties, he will take off his garments and leave them in the tabernacle of the congregation, and then wash himself and put his clothes back on.

In Leviticus 17, there are instructions concerning the sanctity of blood. If a person eats an animal that dies naturally or is torn by beasts, he is to wash his clothes and himself with water.

In Leviticus 22, God says that if anyone becomes unclean, he is to wash himself with water and will be unclean until the evening. Only then could he eat of the holy offerings.

In Numbers 19, God gives the laws concerning the red heifer of purification. After the priest has performed the instructions, he is to wash his clothes and himself and will be unclean until the evening. If a man becomes unclean because he touched the dead body of a person, he is to wash his clothes and wash himself.

In Deuteronomy 23, if an army goes to war and a man becomes unclean, he will wash himself with water.

So each of these laws concern baptisms after coming into covenant with YHWH. When a person needed to go through a baptism, they entered a mikvah. There are two direct references to a mikvah in the Bible.

Leviticus 11:36 (KJV)

36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean.

The word plenty is translated from the word mikvah. The second is

Jeremiah 17:13 (KJV)

13 O Lord, the hope of Israel, all that forsake thee shall be ashamed, and they that depart from me shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken the Lord, the fountain of living waters.

The word translated hope is mikvah which gives us the understanding that Messiah is the cleansing mikvah, or hope, of Israel. This gives Christ a direct correlation with the baptisms of the Old Testament.

YHWH talks about a spiritual washing through the prophets. In Isaiah 1, God talks about how sinful the people were. He tells them

Isaiah 1:16-20 (KJV)

16 Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil; 17 Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow. 18 Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool. 19 If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land: 20 But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.

It’s clear that the baptisms of the Old Testament were not meant to physically cleanse someone, but to rather take them from an unclean state to a clean state. The spiritual washing that YHWH speaks of here takes us from a spiritual state of uncleanness to a spiritual state of cleanness. This is what He wants anyways. If you’re dipping into a mikvah just to fulfill the law, you’ve missed the point.

So now let’s fast-forward to the New Testament with John’s Baptism. Let’s look at it through a chronological way using all four gospel accounts.

Luke 3:1-21 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
Mark 1:11 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God;
Matthew 3:11 In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea, Mark 1:4John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. Luke 3:3And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins;
Matthew 3:2And saying, Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.
John 1:19-2219 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou? 20 And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ. 21 And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? And he saith, I am not. Art thou that prophet? And he answered, No. 22 Then said they unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself?
Matthew 3:3For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. Mark 1:2-3As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. Luke 3:4As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. John 1:2323 He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias.
Luke 3:5-6Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth; And all flesh shall see the salvation of God.
Matthew 3:4And the same John had his raiment of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey. Mark 1:6And John was clothed with camel’s hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey;
Matthew 3:5-6Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan, And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins. Mark 1:5And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.
Matthew 3:7But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Luke 3:7Then said he to the multitude that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
Matthew 3:8-9Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance: And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. Luke 3:8Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and begin not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, That God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.
Matthew 3:1010 And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Luke 3:9And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
Luke 3:10-1510 And the people asked him, saying, What shall we do then? 11 He answereth and saith unto them, He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do likewise. 12 Then came also publicans to be baptized, and said unto him, Master, what shall we do? 13 And he said unto them, Exact no more than that which is appointed you. 14 And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages. 15 And as the people were in expectation, and all men mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ, or not;
John 1:24-2524 And they which were sent were of the Pharisees. 25 And they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that prophet?
Matthew 3:11 11 I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance. but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire: Mark 1:7-8And preached, saying, There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose. I indeed have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost. Luke 3:1616 John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: John 1:26-2726 John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not; 27 He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe’s latchet I am not worthy to unloose.
Matthew 3:1212 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. Luke 3:1717 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable.
Luke 3:1818 And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people.
John 1:2828 These things were done in Bethabara beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.
Matthew 3:1313 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him. Mark 1:9And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan.
John 1:29-3129 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. 30 This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me. 31 And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.
Matthew 3:14-1514 But John forbad him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me? 15 And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffered him.
Matthew 3:16-1716 And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him: 17 And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Mark 1:10-1110 And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him: 11 And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Luke 3:21-2221 Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened, 22 And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.
John 1:32-3432 And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. 33 And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. 34 And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God.
Luke 3:2323 And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age…
           

I’d like for you to notice a few things about this passage.

  • John is preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.
  • He does this in the same way the baptisms in the Torah are performed, by immersion in water.
  • When the priests and Levites came to John, they didn’t accuse him of doing something that was against the Torah, but asked him if he was the Christ who would baptize.
  • John claims to baptize with water but says that Jesus will baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire.
  • When Jesus came, John asked to be baptized by Him. But Jesus said that He must be baptized with water in order to fulfill all righteousness. Why? Hebrews 2:17 (KJV) 17 Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.

Jesus was baptized by immersion not for remission of sins, but in order to be like us. Also, we visually see what happens spiritually with us when we are baptized. The Father is pleased and the Holy Spirit descends. Another reason Jesus was baptized was to show His transition from a private life to a public work of ministry. This happened when He was 30 years old which is the time when a man could become a priest according to Numbers 4.

After this experience, Jesus had his disciples start baptizing people for repentance.

John 3:22-26 (KJV)

22 After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judaea; and there he tarried with them, and baptized. 23 And John also was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized. 24 For John was not yet cast into prison. 25 Then there arose a question between some of John’s disciples and the Jews about purifying. 26 And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him.

John 4:1-3 (KJV)

1 When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John, (Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples,) He left Judaea, and departed again into Galilee.

Of course, John knew that he was not the Christ but was the one who prepared the way for Christ. So it didn’t bother him that Jesus’ disciples were baptizing more people. In fact, this is what he wants. In John 4, it tells us clearly that Jesus Himself never baptized anyone, but allowed His disciples to. Please continue with me in Part 2 of this teaching and we’ll begin looking at what Jesus says about baptism.

Titus 2

Titus 2 (KJV)

2 But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine: 2 That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience.

Titus 2:1-2 Paul urges Titus to speak sound doctrine to them. Specifically to the aged men that they make changes to their lifestyle and personality.

3 The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things; 4 That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, 5 To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.

Titus 2:3-5 Paul addresses the aged women also to practice good behavior, to change their lifestyle, and that they should teach the younger women how to live properly. Is this a common practice at your church?

6 Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.

Titus 2:6 Paul summarizes his admonition to the young men by requesting that they do the same as both the aged men and aged women as it applies to the young men.

7 In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity, 8 Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.

Titus 2:7-8 If Titus is to exhort others, he himself needs to have high standards. In this way, no person will have something bad to say about him. According to the other Scriptures concerning Titus, I would expect that these recommendations won’t be hard from him.

SERVANTS

9 Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again; 10 Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.

Titus 2:9-10 Paul tells Titus to also exhort servants so that they will be good examples as well.

MOTIVATION

11 For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 12 Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world; 13 Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; 14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

Titus 2:11-14 Paul here summarizes everything he has said and reiterates it because we are a saved people. Saved people have a changed lifestyle for the better. We also look for the Second coming of Christ who has redeemed us. Compare this table which compares a few of the groups that Paul listed.

Aged MenAged WomenYoung WomenMessianic Believers
SoberHoliness BehaviorSoberDeny Ungodliness and Worldly Lusts
GraveNot False AccuserLove Your HusbandLive Soberly
TemperateNot Given to Much WineLove Your ChildrenLive Righteously
Sound in FaithTeacher of Good ThingsBe DiscreetLive Godly
Sound in CharityBe ChasteZealous of Good Works
Sound in PatienceBe a Keeper at Home
Be Good
Obedient to Your Husband

15 These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.

Titus 2:15 Paul tells Titus that these are the commendable things he is to speak, exhort, and rebuke with authority and to not let any man despise him because of it. This is great advice since when a person does do this, they are susceptible to ridicule and judgment.

Strong’s # and TransliterationStrong’s DefinitionUse of this word in TItus
Strong's G1401 – doulos
(2 times)
I. a slave, bondman, man of servile condition
A. a slave
B. metaph., one who gives himself up to another's will those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men
C. devoted to another to the disregard of one's own interests
II. a servant, attendant
Titus 1:1 Paul a servant of God
Titus 2:9 Exhort servants to be obedient
Strong's G2316 – theos
(12 times)
I. a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities
II. the Godhead, trinity
A. God the Father, the first person in the trinity
B. Christ, the second person of the trinity
C. Holy Spirit, the third person in the trinity
III. spoken of the only and true God
. refers to the things of God
A. his counsels, interests, things due to him
IV. whatever can in any respect be likened unto God, or resemble him in any way
. God's representative or viceregent
i. of magistrates and judges
Titus 1:1 servant of God…faith of God’s elect
Titus 1:2 which God that cannot lie
Titus 1:3 commandment of God
Titus 1:4 from God the Father
Titus 1:7 the steward of God
Titus 1:16 profess that they know God
Titus 2:5 the word of God
Titus 2:10 the doctrine of God
Titus 2:11 grace of God
Titus 2:13 glorious appearing of the great God
Titus 3:4 love of God
Titus 3:8 believed in God
Strong's G2424 – Iēsous
(4 times)
I. Jesus = "Jehovah is salvation"
A. Jesus, the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind, God incarnate
B. Jesus Barabbas was the captive robber whom the Jews begged Pilate to release instead of Christ
C. Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses' successor (Ac. 7:45, Heb. 4:8)
D. Jesus, son of Eliezer, one of the ancestors of Christ (Lu. 3:29)
E. Jesus, surnamed Justus, a Jewish Christian, an associate with Paul in the preaching of the gospel (Col. 4:11)
Titus 1:1 of Jesus Christ
Titus 1:4 the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour
Titus 2:13 our Saviour Jesus Christ
Titus 3:6 Jesus Christ our Saviour
Strong's G5547 – Christos
(4 times)
I. Christ = "anointed"
A. Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God
B. anointed
Titus 1:1 of Jesus Christ
Titus 1:4 the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour
Titus 2:13 our Saviour Jesus Christ
Titus 3:6 through Jesus Christ our Saviour
Strong's G4102 – pistis
(6 times)
A. relating to God
i. the conviction that God exists and is the creator and ruler of all things, the provider and bestower of eternal salvation through Christ
B. relating to Christ
. a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God
C. the religious beliefs of Christians
D. belief with the predominate idea of trust (or confidence) whether in God or in Christ, springing from faith in the same
II. fidelity, faithfulness
. the character of one who can be relied on
Titus 1:13 sound in the faith
Titus 2:2 sound in faith
Titus 2:10 showing all good fidelity
Titus 3:15 love us in the faith
Strong's G1680 – elpis
(3 times)
I. expectation of evil, fear
II. expectation of good, hope
A. in the Christian sense
i. joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation
III. on hope, in hope, having hope
. the author of hope, or he who is its foundation
A. the thing hoped for
Titus 1:2 In hope of eternal life
Titus 2:13 that blessed hope
Titus 3:7 according to the hope of eternal life
Strong's G3056 – logos
(5 times)
I. of speech
A. a word, uttered by a living voice, embodies a conception or idea
B. what someone has said
i. a word
ii. the sayings of God
iii. decree, mandate or order
iv. of the moral precepts given by God
v. Old Testament prophecy given by the prophets
vi. what is declared, a thought, declaration, aphorism, a weighty saying, a dictum, a maxim
C. discourse
. the act of speaking, speech
i. the faculty of speech, skill and practice in speaking
ii. a kind or style of speaking
iii. a continuous speaking discourse - instruction
D. doctrine, teaching
E. anything reported in speech; a narration, narrative
F. matter under discussion, thing spoken of, affair, a matter in dispute, case, suit at law
G. the thing spoken of or talked about; event, deed
II. its use as respect to the MIND alone
. reason, the mental faculty of thinking, meditating, reasoning, calculating
A. account, i.e. regard, consideration
B. account, i.e. reckoning, score
C. account, i.e. answer or explanation in reference to judgment
D. relation, i.e. with whom as judge we stand in relation
. reason would
E. reason, cause, ground
III. In John, denotes the essential Word of God, Jesus Christ, the personal wisdom and power in union with God, his minister in creation and government of the universe, the cause of all the world's life both physical and ethical, which for the procurement of man's salvation put on human nature in the person of Jesus the Messiah, the second person in the Godhead, and shone forth conspicuously from His words and deeds.
Titus 1:3 manifested his word through preaching
Titus 1:9 the faithful word
Titus 2:5 the word of God
Titus 2:8 Sound speech
Titus 3:8 a faithful saying
Strong's G2003 - epitagē
(2 times)
I. an injunction, mandate, commandTitus 1:3 the commandment of God
Titus 2:15 rebuke with all authority
Strong's G4990 - sōtēr
(6 times)
saviour, deliverer, preserverTitus 1:3 our Saviour
Titus 1:4 our Saviour
Titus 2:10 our Saviour in all things
Titus 2:13 our Saviour Jesus Christ
Titus 3:4 our Saviour
Titus 3:6 our Saviour
Strong's G5485 - charis
(4 times)
I. grace
A. that which affords joy, pleasure, delight, sweetness, charm, loveliness: grace of speech
II. good will, loving-kindness, favour
. of the merciful kindness by which God, exerting his holy influence upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to the exercise of the Christian virtues
III. what is due to grace
. the spiritual condition of one governed by the power of divine grace
A. the token or proof of grace, benefit
i. a gift of grace
ii. benefit, bounty
IV. thanks, (for benefits, services, favours), recompense, reward
Titus 1:4 Grace, mercy, and peace
Titus 2:11 the grace of God
Titus 3:7 justified by his grace
Titus 3:15 Grace be with you all
Strong's G435 - anēr
(2 times)
I. with reference to sex
A. of a male
B. of a husband
C. of a betrothed or future husband
II. with reference to age, and to distinguish an adult man from a boy
III. any male
IV. used generically of a group of both men and women
Titus 1:6 the husband of one wife
Titus 2:5 obedient to their own husbands
Strong's G4998 - sōphrōn
(3 times)
I. of a sound mind, sane, in one's senses
II. curbing one's desires and impulses, self-controlled, temperate
Titus 1:8 sober
Titus 2:2 temperate
Titus 2:5 To be discreet
Strong's G5198 - hygiainō
(4 times)
I. to be sound, to be well, to be in good health
II. metaph.
A. of Christians whose opinions are free from any mixture of error
B. of one who keeps the graces and is strong
Titus 1:9 by sound doctrine
Titus 1:13 sound in the faith
Titus 2:1 which become sound doctrine
Titus 2:2 sound in the faith
Strong's G1319 - didaskalia
(4 times)
I. teaching, instruction
II. teaching
A. that which is taught, doctrine
B. teachings, precepts
Titus 1:9 by sound doctrine
Titus 2:1 become sound doctrine
Titus 2:7 in doctrine shewing uncorruptness
Titus 2:10 adorn the doctrine of God
Strong's G3870 - parakaleō
(3 times)
I. to call to one's side, call for, summon
II. to address, speak to, (call to, call upon), which may be done in the way of exhortation, entreaty, comfort, instruction, etc.
A. to admonish, exhort
B. to beg, entreat, beseech
i. to strive to appease by entreaty
C. to console, to encourage and strengthen by consolation, to comfort
. to receive consolation, be comforted
D. to encourage, strengthen
E. exhorting and comforting and encouraging
F. to instruct, teach
Titus 1:9 to exhort
Titus 2:6 likewise exhort
Titus 2:15 and exhort
Strong's G1651 - elegchō
(3 times)
I. to convict, refute, confute
A. generally with a suggestion of shame of the person convicted
B. by conviction to bring to the light, to expose
II. to find fault with, correct
. by word
i. to reprehend severely, chide, admonish, reprove
ii. to call to account, show one his fault, demand an explanation
A. by deed
. to chasten, to punish
Titus 1:9 to convince the gainsayers
Titus 1:13 Wherefore rebuke them sharply
Titus 2:15 and rebuke with all authority
Strong's G483 - antilegō
(2 times)
I. to speak against, gainsay, contradict
II. to oppose one's self to one, decline to obey him, declare one's self against him, refuse to have anything to do with him
Titus 1:9 to convince the gainsayers
Titus 2:9 not answering again
Strong's G3956 - pas
(14 times)
I. individually
A. each, every, any, all, the whole, everyone, all things, everything
II. collectively
. some of all types
Titus 1:15 all things are pure
Titus 1:16 unto every good work
Titus 2:7 In all things
Titus 2:9 please them well in all things
Titus 2:10 but shewing all good fidelity
Titus 2:11 hath appeared unto all men
Titus 2:14 redeem us from all iniquity
Titus 2:15 rebuke will all authority
Titus 3:1 to be ready to every good work.
Titus 3:2 shewing all meekness unto all men.
Titus 3:15 All that are with me…Grace be with you all.
Strong's G2041 - ergon
(7 times)
I. business, employment, that which any one is occupied
A. that which one undertakes to do, enterprise, undertaking
II. any product whatever, any thing accomplished by hand, art, industry, or mind
III. an act, deed, thing done: the idea of working is emphasised in opp. to that which is less than work
Titus 1:16 but in works they deny him…every good work
Titus 2:7 a pattern or good works
Titus 2:14 zealous of good works
Titus 3:1 ready to every good work
Titus 3:5 Not by works of righteousness
Titus 3:8 be careful to maintain good works
Titus 3:14 to maintain good works
Strong's G720 - arneomai
(2 times)
I. to deny
II. to deny someone
A. to deny one's self
i. to disregard his own interests or to prove false to himself
ii. act entirely unlike himself
III. to deny, abnegate, abjure
IV. not to accept, to reject, to refuse something offered
Titus 1:16 they deny him
Titus 2:12 denying ungodliness
Strong's G18 - agathos
(4 times)
I. of good constitution or nature
II. useful, salutary
III. good, pleasant, agreeable, joyful, happy
IV. excellent, distinguished
V. upright, honourable
Titus 1:16 unto every good work
Titus 2:5 good,
Titus 2:10 but shewing all good fidelity
Titus 3:1 to every good work
Strong's G3501 - neos
(2 times)
I. recently born, young, youthful
II. new
Titus 2:4 the young women
Titus 2:6 young men
Strong's G5293 - hypotassō
(3 times)
I. to arrange under, to subordinate
II. to subject, put in subjection
III. to subject one's self, obey
IV. to submit to one's control
V. to yield to one's admonition or advice
VI. to obey, be subject
Titus 2:5 obedient to their own husbands
Titus 2:9 Exhort servants to be obedient
Titus 3:1 to be subject to principalities
Strong's G987 - blasphēmeō
(3 times)
I. to speak reproachfully, rail at, revile, calumniate, blaspheme
II. to be evil spoken of, reviled, railed at
Titus 2:5 the word of God be not blasphemed.
Titus 3:2 To speak evil of no man
Strong's G2570 - kalos
(5 times)
I. beautiful, handsome, excellent, eminent, choice, surpassing, precious, useful, suitable, commendable, admirable
A. beautiful to look at, shapely, magnificent
B. good, excellent in its nature and characteristics, and therefore well adapted to its ends
i. genuine, approved
ii. precious
iii. joined to names of men designated by their office, competent, able, such as one ought to be
iv. praiseworthy, noble
C. beautiful by reason of purity of heart and life, and hence praiseworthy
. morally good, noble
D. honourable, conferring honour
E. affecting the mind agreeably, comforting and confirming
Titus 2:7 a pattern of good works
Titus 2:14 zealous of good works.
Titus 3:8 be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable
Titus 3:14 learn to maintain good works
Strong's G1731 - endeiknymi
(2 times)
I. to point out
A. to show, demonstrate, prove, whether by arguments or by acts
II. to manifest, display, put forth
Titus 2:10 but shewing all good fidelity
Titus 3:2 shewing all meekness
Strong's G2014 - epiphainō
(2 times)
I. to show to or upon
A. to bring to light
II. to appear, become visible
. of stars
III. to become clearly known, to show one's self
Titus 2:11 hath appeared to all men.
Titus 3:4 our Saviour toward man appeared.
Strong's G1939 - epithymia
(2 times)
I. desire, craving, longing, desire for what is forbidden, lustTitus 2:12 and worldly lusts
Titus 3:3 serving divers lusts and pleasures
Strong's G5023 - tauta
(2 times)
I. theseTitus 2:15 These things speak
Titus 3:8 These things are good

Challenge Questions:

Where do you fit in Paul’s groups that he listed? Are you following the advice he gives?

What does Paul mean when he says, ‘sound doctrine?’

In the table provided, which characteristic is in all four groups? What else is interesting about this table?

 

Titus 1

Titus 1 (KJV)

INTRODUCTION

1 Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God’s elect, and the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness; 2 In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began; 3 But hath in due times manifested his word through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God our Saviour; 4 To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour.

Titus 1:1-4 These four verses are the introduction to the letter. The author is Paul and the audience is Titus. He says that he acknowledges the truth which is after godliness and in eternal life. Why is he making this statement? Paul mentions that the word of God has been manifested to him through preaching. Paul considers Titus to be his own son after the common faith which probably is a reference to Paul being instrumental in Titus believing in Christ.

REASON FOR THE LETTER

5 For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee: 6 If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly.

Titus 1:4-6 Paul knew Titus beforehand and decided that Titus should stay in Crete to straighten things out and to ordain elders in each of the cities. Crete is a small island with about a dozen large cities. These elders needed to be blameless, not polygamists, and having obedient children.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GOOD AND BAD BISHOPS

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7 For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre; 8 But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate; 9 Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.

Titus 1:7-9 These elders were to be the bishops in those cities. Bishops have requirements. There are things they are not supposed to do and things they are supposed to do. One of the main reasons why they are bishops is to be able to exhort and to convince the gainsayers. Please reference the Titus 1 concordance at the end of this study for word definitions.

10 For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision: 11 Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre’s sake.

Titus 1:10-11 Paul elaborates on what a gainsayer is and then says that some of the ones of the circumcision, i.e. the Jews, are also gainsayers. Paul is very vehement about having these people stop teaching things they aren’t supposed to be teaching and gaining money from it. Can you think of anyone in our modern time who is like this?

12 One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, the Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.

Titus 1:12 Paul says that one of the natives of Crete who is a prophet even says how bad the Cretians are. This prophet is Epimenides.

13 This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith; 14 Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth.

Titus 1:13-14 Paul believes what the prophet says about the Cretians. He urges Titus to rebuke the ones of the circumcision(Jews) so that they will be sound in the faith. Apparently, there are some Jewish fables and commandments of men that are turning people from the truth. These issues need to be addressed and dealt with.

15 Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled. 16 They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.

Titus 1:15 Paul says that to the pure all things are pure and to the unpure, nothing is pure. These unpure are not believers who hav their mind and conscience defiled. What’s worse, is that they profess to know God and yet deny God in their works. Even their good works are reprobate. Do you know someone like this?

Strong’s # and TransliterationStrong’s DefinitionUse of this word in TItus
Strong's G1401 – doulos
(2 times)
I. a slave, bondman, man of servile condition
A. a slave
B. metaph., one who gives himself up to another's will those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men
C. devoted to another to the disregard of one's own interests
II. a servant, attendant
Titus 1:1 Paul a servant of God
Titus 2:9 Exhort servants to be obedient
Strong's G2316 – theos
(12 times)
I. a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities
II. the Godhead, trinity
A. God the Father, the first person in the trinity
B. Christ, the second person of the trinity
C. Holy Spirit, the third person in the trinity
III. spoken of the only and true God
. refers to the things of God
A. his counsels, interests, things due to him
IV. whatever can in any respect be likened unto God, or resemble him in any way
. God's representative or viceregent
i. of magistrates and judges
Titus 1:1 servant of God…faith of God’s elect
Titus 1:2 which God that cannot lie
Titus 1:3 commandment of God
Titus 1:4 from God the Father
Titus 1:7 the steward of God
Titus 1:16 profess that they know God
Titus 2:5 the word of God
Titus 2:10 the doctrine of God
Titus 2:11 grace of God
Titus 2:13 glorious appearing of the great God
Titus 3:4 love of God
Titus 3:8 believed in God
Strong's G2424 – Iēsous
(4 times)
I. Jesus = "Jehovah is salvation"
A. Jesus, the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind, God incarnate
B. Jesus Barabbas was the captive robber whom the Jews begged Pilate to release instead of Christ
C. Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses' successor (Ac. 7:45, Heb. 4:8)
D. Jesus, son of Eliezer, one of the ancestors of Christ (Lu. 3:29)
E. Jesus, surnamed Justus, a Jewish Christian, an associate with Paul in the preaching of the gospel (Col. 4:11)
Titus 1:1 of Jesus Christ
Titus 1:4 the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour
Titus 2:13 our Saviour Jesus Christ
Titus 3:6 Jesus Christ our Saviour
Strong's G5547 – Christos
(4 times)
I. Christ = "anointed"
A. Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God
B. anointed
Titus 1:1 of Jesus Christ
Titus 1:4 the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour
Titus 2:13 our Saviour Jesus Christ
Titus 3:6 through Jesus Christ our Saviour
Strong's G4102 – pistis
(6 times)
I. conviction of the truth of anything, belief; in the NT of a conviction or belief respecting man's relationship to God and divine things, generally with the included idea of trust and holy fervour born of faith and joined with itTitus 1:1 faith of God’s Elect
Titus 1:4 after the common faith
Strong's G225 – alētheia
(2 times)
I. objectively
A. what is true in any matter under consideration
i. truly, in truth, according to truth
ii. of a truth, in reality, in fact, certainly
B. what is true in things appertaining to God and the duties of man, moral and religious truth
. in the greatest latitude
i. the true notions of God which are open to human reason without his supernatural intervention
C. the truth as taught in the Christian religion, respecting God and the execution of his purposes through Christ, and respecting the duties of man, opposing alike to the superstitions of the Gentiles and the inventions of the Jews, and the corrupt opinions and precepts of false teachers even among Christians
II. subjectively
. truth as a personal excellence
. that candour of mind which is free from affection, pretence, simulation, falsehood, deceit
Titus 1:1 acknowledging of the truth
Titus 1:14 that turn from the truth
Strong's G1680 – elpis
(3 times)
I. expectation of evil, fear
II. expectation of good, hope
A. in the Christian sense
i. joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation
III. on hope, in hope, having hope
. the author of hope, or he who is its foundation
A. the thing hoped for
Titus 1:2 In hope of eternal life
Titus 2:13 that blessed hope
Titus 3:7 according to the hope of eternal life
Strong's G166 – aiōnios
(3 times)
I. without beginning and end, that which always has been and always will be
II. without beginning
III. without end, never to cease, everlasting
Titus 1:2 hope of eternal life…before the world began
Titus 3:7 hope of eternal life
Strong's G2222 – zōē
(2 times)
I. life
A. the state of one who is possessed of vitality or is animate
B. every living soul
II. life
. of the absolute fulness of life, both essential and ethical, which belongs to God, and through him both to the hypostatic "logos" and to Christ in whom the "logos" put on human nature
A. life real and genuine, a life active and vigorous, devoted to God, blessed, in the portion even in this world of those who put their trust in Christ, but after the resurrection to be consummated by new accessions (among them a more perfect body), and to last for ever.
Titus 1:2 hope of eternal life
Titus 3:7 hope of eternal life
Strong's G3056 – logos
(5 times)
I. of speech
A. a word, uttered by a living voice, embodies a conception or idea
B. what someone has said
i. a word
ii. the sayings of God
iii. decree, mandate or order
iv. of the moral precepts given by God
v. Old Testament prophecy given by the prophets
vi. what is declared, a thought, declaration, aphorism, a weighty saying, a dictum, a maxim
C. discourse
. the act of speaking, speech
i. the faculty of speech, skill and practice in speaking
ii. a kind or style of speaking
iii. a continuous speaking discourse - instruction
D. doctrine, teaching
E. anything reported in speech; a narration, narrative
F. matter under discussion, thing spoken of, affair, a matter in dispute, case, suit at law
G. the thing spoken of or talked about; event, deed
II. its use as respect to the MIND alone
. reason, the mental faculty of thinking, meditating, reasoning, calculating
A. account, i.e. regard, consideration
B. account, i.e. reckoning, score
C. account, i.e. answer or explanation in reference to judgment
D. relation, i.e. with whom as judge we stand in relation
. reason would
E. reason, cause, ground
III. In John, denotes the essential Word of God, Jesus Christ, the personal wisdom and power in union with God, his minister in creation and government of the universe, the cause of all the world's life both physical and ethical, which for the procurement of man's salvation put on human nature in the person of Jesus the Messiah, the second person in the Godhead, and shone forth conspicuously from His words and deeds.
Titus 1:3 manifested his word through preaching
Titus 1:9 the faithful word
Titus 2:5 the word of God
Titus 2:8 Sound speech
Titus 3:8 a faithful saying
Strong's G4100 – pisteuō
(2 times)
I. to think to be true, to be persuaded of, to credit, place confidence in
A. of the thing believed
i. to credit, have confidence
B. in a moral or religious reference
. used in the NT of the conviction and trust to which a man is impelled by a certain inner and higher prerogative and law of soul
i. to trust in Jesus or God as able to aid either in obtaining or in doing something: saving faith
ii. mere acknowledgment of some fact or event: intellectual faith
II. to entrust a thing to one, i.e. his fidelity
. to be intrusted with a thing
Titus 1:3 which is committed unto me
Titus 3:8 they which have believed in God
Strong's G2003 - epitagē
(2 times)
I. an injunction, mandate, commandTitus 1:3 the commandment of God
Titus 2:15 rebuke with all authority
Strong's G4990 - sōtēr
(6 times)
saviour, deliverer, preserverTitus 1:3 our Saviour
Titus 1:4 our Saviour
Titus 2:10 our Saviour in all things
Titus 2:13 our Saviour Jesus Christ
Titus 3:4 our Saviour
Titus 3:6 our Saviour
Strong's G5043 - teknon
(2 times)
I. offspring, children
A. child
i. a male child, a son
B. metaph.
. the name transferred to that intimate and reciprocal relationship formed between men by the bonds of love, friendship, trust, just as between parents and children
i. in affectionate address, such as patrons, helpers, teachers and the like employ: my child
ii. in the NT, pupils or disciples are called children of their teachers, because the latter by their instruction nourish the minds of their pupils and mould their characters
iii. children of God: in the OT of "the people of Israel" as especially dear to God, in the NT, in Paul's writings, all who are led by the Spirit of God and thus closely related to God
iv. children of the devil: those who in thought and action are prompted by the devil, and so reflect his character
C. metaph.
. of anything who depends upon it, is possessed by a desire or affection for it, is addicted to it
i. one who is liable to any fate
a. thus children of a city: it citizens and inhabitants
ii. the votaries of wisdom, those souls who have, as it were, been nurtured and moulded by wisdom
iii. cursed children, exposed to a curse and doomed to God's wrath or penalty
Titus 1:4 mine own son
Titus 1:6 having faithful children
Strong's G5485 - charis
(4 times)
I. grace
A. that which affords joy, pleasure, delight, sweetness, charm, loveliness: grace of speech
II. good will, loving-kindness, favour
. of the merciful kindness by which God, exerting his holy influence upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to the exercise of the Christian virtues
III. what is due to grace
. the spiritual condition of one governed by the power of divine grace
A. the token or proof of grace, benefit
i. a gift of grace
ii. benefit, bounty
IV. thanks, (for benefits, services, favours), recompense, reward
Titus 1:4 Grace, mercy, and peace
Titus 2:11 the grace of God
Titus 3:7 justified by his grace
Titus 3:15 Grace be with you all
Strong's G1656 - eleos
(2 times)
I. mercy: kindness or good will towards the miserable and the afflicted, joined with a desire to help them
A. of men towards men: to exercise the virtue of mercy, show one's self merciful
B. of God towards men: in general providence; the mercy and clemency of God in providing and offering to men salvation by Christ
C. the mercy of Christ, whereby at his return to judgment he will bless true Christians with eternal life
Titus 1:4 Grace, mercy, and peace
Titus 3:5 according to his mercy he saved us
Strong's G5484 - charin
(3 times)
I. in favour of, for the pleasure of
II. for, for the sake of
III. on this account, for this cause
Titus 1:5 For this cause
Titus 1:11 for filthy lucre’s sake
Strong's G3007 - leipō
(2 times)
I. to leave, leave behind, forsake, to be left behind
A. to lag, be inferior
B. to be destitute of, to lack
II. to be wanting, to fail
Titus 1:5 the things that are wanting
Titus 3:13 that nothing be wanting unto them
Strong's G410 - anegklētos
(2 times)
I. that cannot be called into to account, unreproveable, unaccused, blamelessTitus 1:6 If any be blameless
Titus 1:7 a bishop must be blameless
Strong's G435 - anēr
(2 times)
I. with reference to sex
A. of a male
B. of a husband
C. of a betrothed or future husband
II. with reference to age, and to distinguish an adult man from a boy
III. any male
IV. used generically of a group of both men and women
Titus 1:6 the husband of one wife
Titus 2:5 obedient to their own husbands
Strong's G4103 - pistos
(3 times)
I. trusty, faithful
A. of persons who show themselves faithful in the transaction of business, the execution of commands, or the discharge of official duties
B. one who kept his plighted faith, worthy of trust
C. that can be relied on
II. easily persuaded
. believing, confiding, trusting
A. in the NT one who trusts in God's promises
i. one who is convinced that Jesus has been raised from the dead
ii. one who has become convinced that Jesus is the Messiah and author of salvation
Titus 1:6 having faithful children
Titus 1:9 Holding fast the faithful word
Titus 3:8 This is a faithful saying
Strong's G506 - anypotaktos
(2 times)
I. not made subject, unsubjected
II. that cannot be subjected to control, disobedient, unruly, refractory
Titus 1:6 or unruly
Titus 1:10 there are many unruly
Strong's G4998 - sōphrōn
(3 times)
I. of a sound mind, sane, in one's senses
II. curbing one's desires and impulses, self-controlled, temperate
Titus 1:8 sober
Titus 2:2 temperate
Titus 2:5 To be discreet
Strong's G5198 - hygiainō
(4 times)
I. to be sound, to be well, to be in good health
II. metaph.
A. of Christians whose opinions are free from any mixture of error
B. of one who keeps the graces and is strong
Titus 1:9 by sound doctrine
Titus 1:13 sound in the faith
Titus 2:1 which become sound doctrine

Challenge Questions:

After Titus went to Crete, what were the results? Has it made an impact on us today?
How would you ‘rebuke them sharply’ if you were Titus?
How should we react to people who claim to be believers but are only in it for the money or who have no good works to show? Are there people like this in your church?

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